I know only claustrophobia because I have that fear of closed spaces. I remember the days very well when I recognized that I have claustrophobia.
It was in 1969 when I saw the lift first time that was supposed to take me to the 10th floor of a building. I refused to enter the lift-nothing but a steel cage with no windows. I was terrified at the sight of it.
Here is a website that lists out all the phobias that has ever been identified and entered into the English dictionary.
The Phobia Guide has about 200 phobia names some of which are truly amazing.
A few examples: